More on our best skincare ingredients - Seaweed Polysaccharide Gel
Overexposure to environmental stresses such as UV and pollution has increased due to lifestyle choices and with that increase, so has the production of Reactive Oxygen Species which are responsible for many skin related problems such as hyperpigmentation, premature ageing, etc.
Certain seaweed species in the marine environment benefit from the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites for their own survival in stressful conditions.
These biologically active components present an amazing opportunity to be used as active ingredients in Kalōnology's skin care range - they form a major part of our entire bioactive ingredient strategy.
These components are used as an antioxidants, antibacterial, anti-ageing, anti-acne, and for moisturisation and moisture retention in our formulations.
What follows is a detailed background to our inclusion of Pollysaccharide Gel and various Seaweed extracts into our Marine Formulations - your perfect day to day skin care routine:
The skin is the major organ in the human body. Generally, the skin can be divided into epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. The epidermis is the uppermost layer of the skin. It has three types of cells—namely keratinocytes, melanocytes, and Langerhans cells.
Keratinocytes are made up of keratin, which on maturation lose water and move up to the uppermost layer of the epidermis called the stratum corneum.
The next collection of cells present in the epidermis are melanocytes, the cells that produce melanin, the pigment accountable for skin tone and colour.
Langerhans cells inhibit the penetration of unwanted matter into the skin. The condition of the epidermis defines the freshness and youthfulness of your skin.
Collagen and elastin are the main components of the extracellular matrix, covering about 90% of the dermis.
Hyaluronic acid is also a main constituent of the dermis. HA plays an important role in moisture absorption and moisture retention.
Subcutaneous tissue, which is the third layer located under the dermis, is comprised of connective tissue and fat. The loss of subcutaneous tissue due to age will also lead to facial sagging and wrinkles.
Ultraviolet Radiation from the Sun causes a 'sun tanned' look to the skin - this radiation also causes wrinkles and a host of other unwanted side effects.
UV radiation induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletes anti-oxidant enzymes. These ROS can lead to skin disorders such as hyper-pigmentation, premature ageing, and dry skin.
Skin ageing is a complex process caused by two factors. One is intrinsic in which ageing is caused by genetics.
The other is extrinsic, whereby ageing occurs due to the over exposure of skin to ultraviolet rays, pollution and other lifestyle related factors.
Kalōnology focuses on extrinsic factors - premature ageing of the skin due to an overproduction of ROS which we know, plays a key role.
In recent years, certain seaweed species have been most desirable source of research for their bioactivity and bioactive compounds like polyphenols, fucoidan, phlorotannins, carotenoids, etc. which amongst others, inhibits Tyrosinase production.
Tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of melanin, a pigment that is responsible for skin colour.
Hyper-pigmentation is caused due to the abnormal accumulation of melanin pigments in the skin. Overexposure to UV rays induces abnormal melanin synthesis which results in skin pigmentation.
Certain species of seaweed display a profound ability to reduce tyrosinase activity, thus significantly reducing melanin synthesis.
Seaweed polysaccharides also play a major role in inhibiting collagenase and elastase activity.
Peptides available in certain seaweed, namely PYP1-5 and Porphyra 334 from Porphyra yezoensis f. coreana Ueda, have been well studied and show an ability to increase the production of elastin and collagen and decrease the expression of MMP protein.
ROS also damage DN, resulting in hyper-pigmentation, premature ageing, sunburn, skin cancer, etc.
Macro-algae have an amazing self protection strategy which produces many secondary metabolites - antioxidants which help combat ROS. These antioxidant substances included pigments like fucoxanthin, carotenoids, mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA), and phenols such as phlorotannins and scytonemins.
These bioactive components are capable of absorbing UV radiation and keep the human fibroblast cells from UV-induced ageing.
Polysaccharides such as fucoidan, laminarin, and alginate extracted from brown algae like Fucus vesiculosus var. alternans C.Agardh, Sargassum sp, Turbinaria conoides f. laticuspidata W.R.Taylor, possess potent anti-oxidative activity.
A red pigment, Astaxanthin, exhibited strong anti-oxidant activity and protects from peroxidation by scavenging radicals. The activity may be due to the presence of conjugated polyene and terminal ring moieties of astaxanthin help to trap the radicals and therefore exhibit potent antioxidative and photoprotective agents. It also blocked cytokine production.
Topical application also demonstrated the photoprotection effect against the cell damage caused by UVB radiation.
Maintaining moisture in the skin is important. Polysaccharides have maximum water holding capacity which can act as a humectant and moisturiser.
Polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica Areschoug were shown to have greater hydrating and moisturising effects than hyaluronic acid.
These benefits are available in Kalōnology's Pro Age Marine Skin Care Collection.
Kalōnology Responsible Skin Care - Oct 21